United States and British Cooperation
A Cold War Alliance
"The BRUSA Agreement established high-level cooperation on SIGINT matters and covered the exchange of personnel, regulations for the handling of ULTRA [Enigma] material, and procedures for its distribution"
-James Bamford, best-selling author and expert on the NSA
Click on the gray bubbles below to read about international intelligence cooperation.
"One of the most important legacies of the Second World War was the creation of the vast global signals intelligence alliance known as UKUSA" - Richard Aldrich, Professor of International Security
-President George H. W. Bush (director of CIA 1976-1977, President 1989-1993)
Modern Day Implications
the United States and Britain, March 14, 2012
“That agreement [UKUSA] has been central not only to Sigint exchanges, but more generally to Anglo-Saxon transatlantic intelligence cooperation ever since"
- Stephan Lander, former Direct General of MI5
Past and Present
Glossary Page 1
Glossary Page 2
"The secret British program to monitor and decipher Germany's Enigma signals"
- Sir Lawrence David Freedman, Professor of War Studies, King's College London
“Three rotors, side by side, created an electrical maze. As they turned, they changed the maze - and thereby the encipherment. The result was a rather secure cipher”
- Dr. David Kahn, leading historian
“Bletchley Park was concentrated on deciphering, translating, evaluating and distributing the vast amount of information...transmitted by the Germans after they had been rendered 'secure' by encipherment on the famous Enigma machine”
- Ronald Lewin, British military historian
"After the war, it took over from the Government Code and Cipher School the function of receiving and decoding intercepted wireless traffic from listening stations scattered throughout the United Kingdom and from several dozen overseas"
- Lord Jonathan Sumption, British judge, author and medieval historian
Double Cross System
"For the duration of the war, brilliantly orchestrated false reports sent back to Germany by Masterman's tame agents would lead the German high command into one blunder after another at the most crucial junctures - ensuring the success of the Allied landing at Normandy, helping to turn the tide in the war against U-boats in the Atlantic, even tricking the Germans into firing most of their V-2 rockets short of central London"
- Stephen Budiansky, former national security correspondent, foreign editor, and deputy editor of U.S. News & World Report
Communications Intelligence (COMINT)
"COMINT is technical and intelligence information derived from foreign
communications by other than the intended recipients"
- Department of Defense Directive, 2010
Signals Intelligence (SIGINT)
"Intelligence obtained through the interception of transmission signals"
- Merriam Webster Dictionary
Public Key Encryption
“A standard analogy for public-key cryptography is given as follows. Suppose that Bob has a wall safe with a secret combination lock known only to him and the safe is left open and made available to passers-by. Then anyone, including Alice, can put messages in the safe and lock it. However, only Bob can retrieve the message, since even Alice, who left a message in the box, has a way of retrieving the message.”
- Richard A. Mollin, author and professor